Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy was able to emerge from over years of Mongol domination 13thth centuries and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia.SMS group - Russia & CIS - X-Pact® MES 4.0: Система управления производством
Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of contributed to the Revolution ofwhich resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Following economic and political turmoil during President Boris YELTSIN's termRussia shifted toward a centralized authoritarian state under President Vladimir PUTINpresent in which the regime seeks to legitimize its rule through managed elections, populist appeals, a foreign policy focused on enhancing the country's geopolitical influence, and commodity-based economic growth.
Russia faces a largely subdued rebel movement in Chechnya and some other surrounding regions, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus. Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a centrally planned economy towards a more market-based system.
Both economic growth and reform have stalled in recent years, however, and Russia remains a predominantly statist economy with a high concentration of wealth in officials' hands. Economic reforms in the s privatized most industry, with notable exceptions in the energy, transportation, banking, and defense-related sectors.
Cis Countries 2020
The protection of property rights is still weak, and the state continues to interfere in the free operation of the private sector. Russia is one of the world's leading producers of oil and natural gas, and is also a top exporter of metals such as steel and primary aluminum.
Russia is heavily dependent on the movement of world commodity prices as reliance on commodity exports makes it vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the volatile swings in global prices. A combination of falling oil prices, international sanctions, and structural limitations pushed Russia into a deep recession inwith GDP falling by close to 2. The downturn continued throughwith GDP contracting another 0.
Government support for import substitution has increased recently in an effort to diversify the economy away from extractive industries. We read every letter or e-mail we receive, and we will convey your comments to CIA officials outside OPA as appropriate.
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Upcoming events Latest Research Press Release IDC Events are a series of exclusive executive-level, invitation-only platforms for ICT decision makers from the largest companies and government organizations in key markets. View all upcoming events. Russia Cloud Hyperscalers of the Future: Mail. Event Videos.It was formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in The CIS encourages cooperation in economic, political and military affairs and has certain powers relating to the coordination of trade, finance, lawmaking, and security.
It has also promoted cooperation on cross-border crime prevention. A few days later the Alma-Ata Protocol was signed, which declared that the Soviet Union was dissolved and that the Russian Federation was to be its successor state. The Baltic states EstoniaLatvia and Lithuaniawhich regard their membership in the Soviet Union as an illegal occupation, chose not to participate.
Georgia withdrew its membership in Ukraine ended its participation in CIS statutory bodies on 19 May While the first and the second are military and economic alliances, the third aims to reach a supranational union of Russia and Belarus with a common government, flag, currency and so on.
Several international organizations, human rights groups and outside observers have criticized the CIS and its member states for its repressive human rights abuses, limited civil rights and indefinite imprisonment or execution of political figures and dissidents. In MarchMikhail Gorbachevthe president of the Soviet Unionproposed a federation by holding a referendum to preserve the Union as the Union of Sovereign States.
The new treaty signing never happened as the Communist Party hardliners staged an attempted coup in August that year. Following the events of August's failed coup, the republics of the USSR had declared their independence fearing another coup. The CIS announced that the new organization would be open to all republics of the former Soviet Union, and to other nations sharing the same goals.
The CIS charter stated that all the members were sovereign and independent nations and thereby effectively abolished the Soviet Union. On 21 Decemberthe leaders of eight additional former Soviet Republics ArmeniaAzerbaijanKazakhstanKyrgyzstanMoldovaTurkmenistanTajikistan and Uzbekistan signed the Alma-Ata Protocol which can either be interpreted as expanding the CIS to these states or the proper foundation or refoundation date of the CIS,  thus bringing the number of participating countries to The three Baltic states did not, reflecting their governments' and people's view that the post Soviet occupation of their territory was illegitimate.
After the end of the dissolution process of the Soviet Union, Russia and the Central Asian republics were weakened economically and faced declines in GDP. Post-Soviet states underwent economic reforms and privatisation. The Charter also defined that all countries having ratified the Agreement on the Establishment of the CIS and its relevant Alma-Ata Protocol would be considered to be founding states of the CIS, as well as that only countries ratifying the Charter would be considered to be member states of the CIS art.
Other states can participate as associate members or observers, if accepted as such by a decision of the Council of Heads of State to the CIS art. All the founding states, apart from Ukraine and Turkmenistan, ratified the Charter of the CIS and became member states of it.
Nevertheless, Ukraine and Turkmenistan kept participating in the CIS, without being member states of it. Georgia left the CIS altogether in and Ukraine stopped participating in During a speech at Moscow State University inthe President of KazakhstanNursultan Nazarbayevsuggested the idea of creating a "common defense" space within the CIS     Nazarbayev idea was quickly seen as a way to bolster trade, boost investments in the region, and serve as a counterweight to the West and East Asia.
Between andthree CIS member states experienced a change of government in a series of colour revolutions : Eduard Shevardnadze was overthrown in Georgia; Viktor Yushchenko was elected in Ukraine; and Askar Akayev was toppled in Kyrgyzstan.
Russia and CIS
In FebruaryGeorgia withdrew from the Council of Defense Ministers, with the statement that "Georgia has taken a course to join NATO and it cannot be part of two military structures simultaneously",   but it remained a full member of the CIS until Augustone year after officially withdrawing in the immediate aftermath of the Russo-Georgian War.Commonwealth of Independent States Abbr.
CIS An association of former Soviet republics that was established in December by Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus to help ease the dissolution of the Soviet Union and coordinate interrepublican affairs. Most of the former Soviet republics are members.
Abbreviation: CIS. Switch to new thesaurus. Russian FederationRussia - a federation in northeastern Europe and northern Asia; formerly Soviet Russia; since an independent state.
MoldaviaMoldovaRepublic of Moldova - a landlocked republic in eastern Europe; formerly a European soviet but achieved independence in UkraineUkrayina - a republic in southeastern Europe; formerly a European soviet; the center of the original Russian state which came into existence in the ninth century. ArmeniaHayastanRepublic of Armenia - a landlocked republic in southwestern Asia; formerly an Asian soviet; modern Armenia is but a fragment of ancient Armenia which was one of the world's oldest civilizations; throughout years the Armenian people have been invaded and oppressed by their neighbors.
AzerbaijanAzerbaijani RepublicAzerbajdzhanAzerbajdzhan Republic - a landlocked republic in southwestern Asia; formerly an Asian soviet.
SakartveloGeorgia - a republic in Asia Minor on the Black Sea separated from Russia by the Caucasus mountains; formerly an Asian soviet but became independent in KazakhstanKazakstanRepublic of KazakhstanKazakKazakh - a landlocked republic to the south of Russia and to the northeast of the Caspian Sea; the original Turkic-speaking inhabitants were overrun by Mongols in the 13th century; an Asian soviet from to KirgiziaKirgizstanKyrgyz RepublicKyrgyzstanKirghiziaKirghizstanKirgizKirghiz - a landlocked republic in west central Asia bordering on northwestern China; formerly an Asian soviet but became independent in Republic of TajikistanTadjikTadzhikistanTajikistanTajikTadzhik - a landlocked mountainous republic in southeast central Asia to the north of Afghanistan; formerly an Asian soviet.
TurkmeniaTurkmenistanTurkomenTurkmen - a republic in Asia to the east of the Caspian Sea and to the south of Kazakhstan and to the north of Iran; an Asian soviet from to Republic of UzbekistanUzbekistanUzbek - a landlocked republic in west central Asia; formerly an Asian soviet. Mentioned in? References in periodicals archive? He said that Islamic banking and finance industry initiative was taken very late in Commonwealth Independent States CIS countries but its growth indicate that CIS countries are the emerging Islamic banking and finance markets.
In addition, foreign ministers of the CIS countries will soon come to a preliminary agreement on a number of other documents submitted for consideration by the presidents of the CIS member states. The outflow of foreign direct investments from Kyrgyzstan to the CIS countries decreased by 3. The foreign trade turnover with CIS countries rose by 0.
The agenda included a wide range of issues of multilateral cooperation of the CIS countries in the economic, innovation, technical and cultural-humanitarian spheres. Tajikistan had trade relations with 80 countries, 10 of them are CIS countrieswhose share in the country's foreign trade turnover amounts to Tajikistan's foreign trade turnover decreases by 3. While subregional cooperation among CIS states on arms transfer controls is not well developed, all CIS countries have been involved in concerted efforts to develop common understandings of how to deal with international arms transfers, especially those related to SALW.
Small arms and light weapons transfer controls in the CIS region. Among the Commonwealth of Independent States, commonly referred to as the CIS countriesthat is now independent countries formerly part of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan is a rising star. Azerbaijan posts a record GDP. Dictionary browser? Full browser?Russian Aviation Insider provides the global air transport community with timely and reliable business news, insight, trends and analysis on commercial aviation matters in Russia and across the other post-Soviet states which remain closely linked economically, culturally and otherwise.
We speak your language, arming you with the information, analysis and data that will help you better understand the specifics of doing aviation business in Russia and across the broader CIS. Ural Airlines leads the world in utilisation rates for the Airbus Aneo. Russian airlines traffic numbers slumped by The Russian airline improved its financial performance five-fold last year [ LCC Pobeda was the only one in the top-five to see year-on-year growth in the first month of the Coronavirus crisis [ Ural Airlines parks a third of its aircraft fleet April 10th, Sheremetyevo is not anticipating the re-launch of international services before July [ Ural Airlines leads the world in utilisation rates for the Airbus Aneo April 10th, The Russian company is the only MRO provider beyond Urals qualified for the type's heavy maintenance [ The enforced aircraft grounding has affected dozens of Russian and foreign lessors [ Russian airline wins its first contract with the international peacekeeping organisation [ The contract may increase the chances of survival for the Russian airline in the ongoing air travel market crisis [ The updated version of the list of companies eligible for state support has finally been released [ Low-cost carrier Pobeda launches an anti-crisis survival strategy April 3rd, Avion Express enters the cargo transportation market April 2nd, The duration of the regulation has been extended by five more years [ Severely reduced operations have forced Sheremetyevo to scale down [ CIS and Russian aviation news — all in one place Russian Aviation Insider provides the global air transport community with timely and reliable business news, insight, trends and analysis on commercial aviation matters in Russia and across the other post-Soviet states which remain closely linked economically, culturally and otherwise.
Use our app for Google Chrome and be the first to learn more about the ever-changing CIS and Russian aviation industry. Russian Aviation Insider Newsletter. Sign up for our email newsletter and stay tuned with the air transport market in Russia and the CIS. Trending Ural Airlines leads the world in utilisation rates for the Airbus Aneo.
Russian Aviation Insider is proudly powered by WordPress.Opening of the new campus in the west of Moscow region in September More space, more opportunities, better facilities. Education in English: Cambridge International Programme and qualified native English speaking teachers. The newly built separate school and kindergarten buildings are equipped with modern facilities and have great transport accessibility.
The Saint Petersburg campus is located in the northern part of the city in a prestigious area close to the Gulf of Finland. Dear friends! CIS announces admission for the next school year Hurry up to join our family! We invite our sportsmen from CIS and their friends from other schools to participate and show their skills in jujutsu, Brazilian jujutsu, sambo and combat sambo!
We know that many CIS students are good in these martial arts, which train both body and soul. Check mate! Happy New Year and Merry Christmas! Academics What makes us unique Early years foundation stage Cambridge primary Cambridge secondary Sixth form Russian curriculum Afterschool curriculum. Campuses Russia. Admissions How to apply Tuition fees Admission policy Apply now. RUS Apply now. Work with us Academics Campuses Admissions 8 42 Offering bright futures.
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The remaining former Soviet republics— LithuaniaLatviaand Estonia —declined to join the new organization. The CIS formally came into being on December 21,and began operations the following month, with the city of Minsk in Belarus designated as its administrative centre. In Augustfollowing an escalation of hostilities between Russia and Georgia over the separatist region of South OssetiaGeorgia announced its intention to withdraw from the CIS.
The withdrawal was finalized in August By at least 10, people had been killed in clashes between Ukrainian armed forces and Russian-backed paramilitary units in the Donets Basin. In May of that year, Ukrainian Pres. Commonwealth of Independent States. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Commonwealth of Independent States international organization.
See Article History. Read More on This Topic. In the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, responsibility for public health fell to the governments of the successor countries. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. All the former republics eventually joined, except the Baltic republics.
Russia still…. Under Yeltsin the Russian army, starved of funds, had lost much….